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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002 Jul;34(7):746-61.

Regulation of substrate adhesion dynamics during cell motility.

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1
Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Billrothstrasse 11, Salzburg 5020, Austria. ikaverina@imb.oeaw.ac.at

Abstract

The movement of a metazoan cell entails the regulated creation and turnover of adhesions with the surface on which it moves. Adhesion sites form as a result of signaling between the extracellular matrix on the outside and the actin cytoskeleton on the inside, and they are associated with specific assembles of actin filaments. Two broad categories of adhesion sites can be distinguished: (1) "focal complexes" associated with lamellipodia and filopodia that support protrusion and traction at the cell front; and (2) "focal adhesions" at the termini of stress fibre bundles that serve in longer term anchorage. Focal complexes are signaled via Rac1 or Cdc42 and can either turnover on a minute scale or differentiate, via intervention of the RhoA pathway, into longer-lived focal adhesions. All classes of adhesion sites depend on the stress in the actin cytoskeleton for their formation and maintenance. Different cell types use different adhesion strategies to move, in terms of the relative engagement of filopodia and lamellipodia in focal complex formation and protrusion and the extent of focal adhesion formation. These differences can be attributed to variations in the relative activities of Rho family members. However, the Rho GTPases alone are unable to signal asymmetry in the actin cytoskeleton, necessary for polarisation and movement. Polarisation requires the collaboration of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Changes in the polymerisation state of microtubules influences the activities of both Rac1 and RhoA and microtubules interact directly with adhesion foci and promote their turnover. Possible mechanisms of cross-talk between the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons in determining polarity are discussed.

PMID:
11950592
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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