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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002 May;86(1-2):31-41.

CpG-oligodinucleotides as an effective adjuvant in pigs for intramuscular immunizations.

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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Veterinary Immunology, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.


In this study, the effect of two oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) sequences 5'GCT-AGA-CGT-TAG-CGT-3' (CpG-ODN) and 5'-GCT-AGA-GCT-TAG-GCT-3' (GpC-ODN) on the antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune response after intramuscular immunizations with OVA was analyzed in pigs. Pigs immunized with OVA supplemented with these ODNs showed a significantly enhanced primary antibody response in comparison with the control group which received OVA without ODN. This enhanced primary antibody response appeared ODN-sequence-independent as similar effects were seen in both ODN-groups. The OVA-specific antibody titers obtained after a single injection of antigen combined with either of both ODNs were as high as the titers in the control group after two injections. Furthermore, the ODN-supplemented animals showed significantly higher OVA-specific IgA antibodies in their saliva and nasal secretions at some time points after the first immunization. Proliferation assays showed that CpG- as well as GpC-ODN significantly enhanced the antigen-specific as well as the mitogen-induced proliferation in different lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, 48h after the third immunization the CpG-group showed a significantly decreased IL-6 mRNA expression in cells of the local draining lymph node but no significant difference in TGF-beta (Th3-like) and IL-10 (Th2-like). The ODN injected animals showed the tendency to have higher IFN-gamma (Th1-like) mRNA-expression in comparison with the control group. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo studies in pigs, which demonstrate the appropriateness of CpG-ODN as immunostimulating adjuvants in vaccines for farm animals.

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