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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;282(5):E1128-38.

Prior exercise and the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in the dog.

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Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0615, USA.


To test whether hepatic insulin action and the response to an insulin-induced decrement in blood glucose are enhanced in the immediate postexercise state as they are during exercise, dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) catheters and flow probes (portal vein and hepatic artery) implanted 16 days before a study. After 150 min of moderate treadmill exercise or rest, dogs were studied during a 150-min hyperinsulinemic (1 euglycemic (n = 5 exercised and n = 9 sedentary) or hypoglycemic (65 mg/dl; n = 8 exercised and n = 9 sedentary) clamp. Net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) and endogenous glucose appearance (R(a)) and utilization (R(d)) were assessed with arteriovenous and isotopic ([3-(3)H]glucose) methods. Results show that, immediately after prolonged, moderate exercise, in relation to sedentary controls: 1) the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia, but not hypoglycemia, was higher; 2) R(d) was greater under euglycemic, but not hypoglycemic conditions; 3) NHGO, but not R(a), was suppressed more by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, suggesting that hepatic glucose uptake was increased; 4) a decrement in glucose completely reversed the enhanced suppression of NHGO by insulin that followed exercise; and 5) arterial glucagon and cortisol were transiently higher in the presence of a decrement in glucose. In summary, an increase in insulin action that was readily evident under euglycemic conditions after exercise was abolished by moderate hypoglycemia. The means by which the glucoregulatory system is able to overcome the increase in insulin action during moderate hypoglycemia is related not to an increase in R(a) but to a reduction in insulin-stimulated R(d). The primary site of this reduction is the liver.

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