Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 2;99(7):4319-24.

FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein associates with mitochondria and senses osmotic stress via mitochondrial dysfunction.

Author information

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Immunology Program, Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


FKBP12-rapamycin associated protein (FRAP, also known as mTOR or RAFT) is the founding member of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinase family and functions as a sensor of physiological signals that regulate cell growth. Signals integrated by FRAP include nutrients, cAMP levels, and osmotic stress, and cellular processes affected by FRAP include transcription, translation, and autophagy. The mechanisms underlying the integration of such diverse signals by FRAP are largely unknown. Recently, FRAP has been reported to be regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion of ATP levels. Here we show that exposure of cells to hyperosmotic conditions (and to glucose-deficient growth medium) results in rapid and reversible dissipation of the mitochondrial proton gradient. These results suggest that the ability of FRAP to mediate osmotic stress response (and glucose deprivation response) is by means of an intermediate mitochondrial dysfunction. We also show that in addition to cytosolic FRAP a large portion of FRAP associates with the mitochondrial outer membrane. The results support the existence of a stress-sensing module consisting of mitochondria and mitochondrial outer membrane-associated FRAP. This module allows the cell to integrate a variety of stress signals that affect mitochondrial function and regulate a growth checkpoint involving p70 S6 kinase.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center