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Tissue Antigens. 2001 Dec;58(6):407-10.

Strong association of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter allele with cerebral malaria in Myanmar.

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Department of Medical Zoology, Saitama Medical School, Saitama, Japan.


To investigate the host genetic factors affecting the clinical course of falciparum malaria, polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter region was analyzed in patients with cerebral malaria. Two hundred and forty-three Myanmar patients with falciparum malaria at Mae Sot Malaria clinic and Mae Sot General Hospital located at the border between Thailand and Myanmar, were included in this study. Among the patients (128 from Karen, 115 from Burma), 200 were uncomplicated and 43 had cerebral malaria. The TNF-alpha 5'- flanking region showed biallelic polymorphic sites at -238, -308, -857, -863, -1031, and there were 7 alleles (TNFP-A, B, C, D, M1, M4, M7) found in the patients from Myanmar. We found that the TNFP-D allele was significantly associated with cerebral malaria in the populations from Karen (Pc<0.0001, OR=124.86) and Burma (Pc<0.0001, OR=34.50). TNFP-D showed no significant linkage disequilibrium with any alleles of HLA-B or HLA-DRB1, suggesting that TNFP-D was primarily associated with cerebral malaria in Myanmar.

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