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Biochemistry. 2002 Apr 2;41(13):4437-46.

Pathway of ADP-stimulated ADP release and dissociation of tethered kinesin from microtubules. Implications for the extent of processivity.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.


Kinesin binds to microtubules with half-site ADP release to form a tethered intermediate with one attached head without nucleotide and one tethered head that retains its bound ADP. For DKH405 containing amino acid residues 1-405 of Drosophila kinesin, release of the remaining ADP from the tethered head is slow (0.05 s(-1)), but release is accelerated by added ADP or ATP. The maximum rate of ADP-stimulated dissociation of tethered DKH405 from the microtubule is approximately 12 s(-1) as determined by turbidity. Parallel measurements of ADP-stimulated release of 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP (mantADP) from the tethered intermediate by fluorescence indicate that the reaction is biphasic with a fast phase that occurs at a rate that is similar to dissociation. The rate of the slow phase is dependent on the concentrations of salt and microtubules and is equal in each case to the rate for bimolecular stimulation of ADP release by microtubules as measured independently. These results are consistent with a scheme in which the fast phase, with approximately one-third of the total amplitude change, is due to ADP-stimulated release of mantADP from the tethered intermediate at approximately 6 s(-1). This direct release of mantADP continues until terminated by dissociation of DKH405 from the microtubule at approximately 12 s(-1). The majority of the amplitude change thus occurs through bimolecular recombination of DKH405.mantADP with microtubules following initial dissociation. Analysis of a simple scheme indicates that hydrolysis of ATP at the attached head before the tethered head can release its ADP and become tightly bound may be the principal limitation to processivity.

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