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J Hum Evol. 2002 Apr;42(4):389-450.

Morphology and affinities of new hominin cranial remains from Member 4 of the Sterkfontein Formation, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

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Institute of Human Origins and Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA.


Descriptions are provided of 27 hominin cranial specimens recovered from Member 4 of the Sterkfontein Formation between 1968 and 1994. Provisional statements of taxonomic affinity are given. The principal conclusion of this overview is that the bulk of the cranial remains from Member 4 are attributable to Australopithecus africanus or are consistent with the anatomy of that species, while some others are indeterminate. No specimen can be assigned confidently to a known species other than A. africanus. However, two specimens document the possibility that a second, possibly new species is represented among the Member 4 hominins, although such a species is difficult to characterize on cranial evidence alone.

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