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Nat Rev Immunol. 2001 Oct;1(1):11-9.

Knockout mice: a paradigm shift in modern immunology.

Author information

1
Amgen Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. tmak@oci.utoronto.ca

Abstract

In the past decade, advances in genetic engineering and mouse knockout technology have transformed our understanding of the immune system. In particular, new perspectives on T-cell development, co-stimulation and activation have emerged from the study of single and multiple gene-knockout animals, as well as from conditional knockout and 'knock-in' mutants. Analysis of these animals has clarified important intracellular signalling pathways and has shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal immune responses and autoimmunity.

PMID:
11905810
DOI:
10.1038/35095551
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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