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Biochem J. 2002 Apr 1;363(Pt 1):127-36.

Protein kinase A enhances, whereas glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta inhibits, the activity of the exon 2-encoded transactivator domain of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D in a hierarchical fashion.

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Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.


Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (hnRNP D) is implicated in transcriptional regulation. Alternative splicing of exons 2 and 7 generates four isoforms of the protein. We report here that only isoforms that contain the product of exon 2 (amino acids 79-97) were able to transactivate. Moreover, the exon 2-encoded protein domain alone was sufficient to drive transcription. TATA-binding protein and p300 interacted with a synthetic peptide corresponding to exon 2, and both proteins co-precipitated with hnRNP D. Stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) synergistically induced the transactivating ability of hnRNP D, and the exon 2-encoded domain was sufficient for this inducibility. In kinase assays PKA phosphorylated Ser-87 of hnRNP D, whereas glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) phosphorylated Ser-83, but only if Ser-87 had been pre-phosphorylated by PKA. Phosphorylation of Ser-87 enhanced, whereas phosphorylation of Ser-83 repressed, transactivation. Overexpression of GSK-3 beta inhibited transactivation by hnRNP D, but stimulation of PKC negated the inhibitory effect of GSK-3 beta. We suggest that a hierarchical phosphorylation pathway regulates the transactivating ability of hnRNP D: PKA activates hnRNP D, but at the same time renders it sensitive to inhibition by GSK-3 beta; the latter inhibition can be suspended by inactivating GSK-3 beta with PKC.

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