Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Mar;102(3):399-404.

The history of enteral nutrition therapy: from raw eggs and nasal tubes to purified amino acids and early postoperative jejunal delivery.

Author information

Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.


Although enteral feeding therapy has existed since ancient Egypt, most of the major advances in enteral feeding techniques and formulas took place during the 20th century, including postpyloric tube placement in 1910; continuous and controlled delivery of liquid nutrition in 1916; feeding during surgery and modification of macronutrients in 1918; feeding via a pump in 1930; recognition of the importance of nutrition therapy during injury recovery and the addition of micronutrients and early postoperative feeding in 1940; the introduction of commercial products during the 1950s with chemically defined formulas following a decade later; and the development of modern formulas during the 1970s. The purpose of this review is to provide a historical account of enteral nutrition, including modes and routes of delivery, types of diet, and refinements in delivery techniques and formulas and to offer the history of the therapy as a resource for developing and improving enteral feeding techniques and therapies and implementing optimal patient care strategies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center