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Int J Pharm. 2002 Feb 21;233(1-2):1-18.

Review on the systemic delivery of insulin via the ocular route.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.


Systemic drug absorption from the ocular route is well known. Although there is some absorption from the conjunctival sac, the nasal meatus is the site where the majority of systemic absorption of instilled drug takes place. This article reviews the principles of systemic absorption of insulin applied topically to the eye. The physiological and pharmaceutical considerations for formulation development and the strategy of improving the systemic absorption and bioavailability of insulin are also discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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