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J Biol Chem. 2002 May 31;277(22):19276-80. Epub 2002 Mar 8.

Identification and molecular characterization of two closely related G protein-coupled receptors activated by prokineticins/endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor.

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  • 1Tularik Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.


We previously described two mammalian secreted proteins, prokineticin 1 and prokineticin 2, that potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Prokineticin 1 has also been shown to promote angiogenesis by stimulating proliferation, migration, and fenestration of endocrine organ-derived endothelial cells. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two closely related G protein-coupled receptors as receptors for prokineticins. Expression of prokineticin receptors in heterologous systems shows that these receptors bind to and are activated by nanomolar concentrations of recombinant prokineticins. Activation of prokineticin receptors leads to mobilization of calcium, stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover, and activation of p44/p42 MAPK signaling pathways that are consistent with the effects of prokineticins on smooth muscle contraction and angiogenesis. mRNA expression analysis reveals that prokineticin receptors are expressed in gastrointestinal organs, endocrine glands, and other tissues.

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