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J Biol Chem. 2002 May 17;277(20):17892-900. Epub 2002 Mar 7.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 and survival factor epidermal growth factor positively regulate the murine GSTA4 enzyme in hepatocytes.

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INSERM U456, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Rennes I, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France.


We hypothesized that glutathione transferases could be induced and may participate to cellular defenses against the oxidative stress occurring during liver regeneration. Here, we evidenced that murine GSTA1 (mGSTA1), A4, Pi, and Mu are up-regulated during mouse liver regeneration, exhibiting a biphasic pattern of induction correlating early G(1) phase and G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle. Using confocal microscopy immunolocalization and subcellular fractionation, mGSTA4 was demonstrated in both mitochondria and cytosol and found preferentially increased in cytosol during liver regeneration. In addition, mGSTA4 was induced in vivo and in cultured hepatocytes by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and epidermal growth factor (EGF), factors that play crucial roles in hepatocyte survival and proliferation during liver regeneration. However, the mitogenic effect of EGF was not responsible for the induction of mGSTA4. In transient transfections, IL-6 and EGF, but not TNFalpha, transactivated the human GSTA4 (hGSTA4) promoter cloned upstream of the luciferase reporter gene suggesting that IL-6 and EGF up-regulated hGSTA4 at a transcriptional level, whereas TNFalpha could rather act at a post-transcriptional level. The inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p38 MAPK, and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, using specific inhibitors, prevented EGF-dependent induction of mGSTA4 and transactivation of hGSTA4 promoter. Altogether, these data favor the conclusion that, in regenerating hepatocytes, several GST isoforms are induced and that cytokines TNFalpha and IL-6 and survival factor EGF positively regulate mGSTA4 via survival signaling pathways.

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