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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;282(4):E834-42.

Heterogeneous metabolic adaptation of C57BL/6J mice to high-fat diet.

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Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Lausanne University, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.


C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet (HFD) for 9 mo. Approximately 50% of the mice became obese and diabetic (ObD), approximately 10% lean and diabetic (LD), approximately 10% lean and nondiabetic (LnD), and approximately 30% displayed intermediate phenotype. All of the HFD mice were insulin resistant. In the fasted state, whole body glucose clearance was reduced in ObD mice, unchanged in the LD mice, and increased in the LnD mice compared with the normal-chow mice. Because fasted ObD mice were hyperinsulinemic and the lean mice slightly insulinopenic, there was no correlation between insulin levels and increased glucose utilization. In vivo, tissue glucose uptake assessed by 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose accumulation was reduced in most muscles in the ObD mice but increased in the LnD mice compared with the values of the control mice. In the LD mice, the glucose uptake rates were reduced in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and total hindlimb but increased in soleus, diaphragm, and heart. When assessed in vitro, glucose utilization rates in the absence and presence of insulin were similar in diaphragm, soleus, and EDL muscles isolated from all groups of mice. Thus, in genetically homogenous mice, HFD feeding lead to different metabolic adaptations. Whereas all of the mice became insulin resistant, this was associated, in obese mice, with decreased glucose clearance and hyperinsulinemia and, in lean mice, with increased glucose clearance in the presence of mild insulinopenia. Therefore, increased glucose clearance in lean mice could not be explained by increased insulin level, indicating that other in vivo mechanisms are triggered to control muscle glucose utilization. These adaptive mechanisms could participate in the protection against development of obesity.

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