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Dev Cell. 2002 Mar;2(3):261-72.

Protein and RNA export from the nucleus.

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Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School and The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The presence of the nuclear envelope necessitates the movement of proteins and RNAs between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Elaborate cellular machinery exists to promote the nuclear transport of macromolecules. Recent advances in the field have illuminated our comprehension of both nuclear import and export as powerful means of gene regulation. As our appreciation of the importance of the process has grown, its study has matured, moving beyond the single cell to the entire organism. This review discusses basic mechanisms and regulation of protein, mRNA, and ribosome export with an emphasis on developmental examples.

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