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Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Apr;70(4):829-44. Epub 2002 Mar 1.

Protean PTEN: form and function.

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1
Human Cancer Genetics, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, 420 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Abstract

Germline mutations distributed across the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene have been found to result in a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. Originally shown to be a major susceptibility gene for both Cowden syndrome (CS), which is characterized by multiple hamartomas and an increased risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers, and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, which is characterized by lipomatosis, macrocephaly, and speckled penis, the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome spectrum has broadened to include Proteus syndrome and Proteus-like syndromes. Exon 5, which encodes the core motif, is a hotspot for mutations likely due to the biology of the protein. PTEN is a major lipid 3-phosphatase, which signals down the PI3 kinase/AKT pro-apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PTEN is a protein phosphatase, with the ability to dephosphorylate both serine and threonine residues. The protein-phosphatase activity has also been shown to regulate various cell-survival pathways, such as the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway. Although it is well established that PTEN's lipid-phosphatase activity, via the PI3K/AKT pathway, mediates growth suppression, there is accumulating evidence that the protein-phosphatase/MAPK pathway is equally important in the mediation of growth arrest and other crucial cellular functions.

PMID:
11875759
PMCID:
PMC379112
DOI:
10.1086/340026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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