Send to

Choose Destination
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Mar;68(3):1436-9.

Isolation and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from untreated municipal wastewater.

Author information

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA.


For this study, we isolated Helicobacter pylori from wastewater by a series of steps beginning with immunomagnetic separation and cell culture. After Gram staining and three standard microbial tests, the 16S rRNA sequences of a total of 23 out of 37 putative H. pylori isolates were verified by PCR. Eleven H. pylori isolates were genotyped and fell into four vacA classes: those with the vacA allelic variants s1a and m1, s1b and m1, s2 and m2, or s2 and m1. Most H. pylori isolates were of the vacA s1a/m1 type, which has been shown to be associated with advanced diseases based on genotyping of H. pylori from gastric cancer patients. These results demonstrated that H. pylori survives in water and may be a potential source of H. pylori transmission, especially where water is not adequately treated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center