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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 19;99(6):3932-7. Epub 2002 Feb 26.

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 blocks human cytomegalovirus replication.

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1
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

Abstract

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein, and activity are transiently induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus. Prostaglandin E(2), the product of COX-2 activity, is transiently increased by a factor of >50 in cultures of virus-infected fibroblasts. Both specific (BMS-279652, 279654, and 279655) and nonspecific (indomethacin) COX-2 inhibitors can abrogate the virus-mediated induction of prostaglandin E(2) accumulation. Levels of COX-2 inhibitors that completely block the induction of COX-2 activity, but do not compromise cell viability, reduce the yield of human cytomegalovirus in human fibroblasts by a factor of >100. Importantly, the yield of infectious virus can be substantially restored by the addition of prostaglandin E(2) together with the inhibitory drug. This finding argues that elevated levels of prostaglandin E(2) are required for efficient replication of human cytomegalovirus in fibroblasts. COX-2 inhibitors block the accumulation of immediate-early 2 mRNA and protein, but have little effect on the levels of immediate-early 1 mRNA and protein. Viral DNA replication and the accumulation of some, but not all, early and late mRNAs are substantially blocked by COX-2 inhibitors. Elevated levels of prostaglandin E(2) apparently facilitate the production of immediate-early 2 protein. The failure to produce normal levels of this critical viral regulatory protein in the presence of COX-2 inhibitors might block normal progression beyond the immediate-early phase of human cytomegalovirus infection.

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PMID:
11867761
PMCID:
PMC122626
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.052713799
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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