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J Biol Chem. 2002 May 3;277(18):15957-61. Epub 2002 Feb 20.

Sweeping model of dynamin activity. Visualization of coupling between exocytosis and endocytosis under an evanescent wave microscope with green fluorescent proteins.

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Laboratory of Cell Imaging, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan.


Vesicle recycling through exocytosis and endocytosis is mediated by a coordinated cascade of protein-protein interactions. Previously, exocytosis and endocytosis were studied separately so that the coupling between them was understood only indirectly. We focused on the coupling of these processes by observing the secretory vesicle marker synaptobrevin and the endocytotic vesicle marker dynamin I tagged with green and red fluorescent proteins under an evanescent wave microscope in pheochromocytoma cells. In control cells, many synaptobrevin-expressing vesicles were found as fluorescent spots near the plasma membrane. Upon electrical stimulation, many of these vesicles showed an exocytotic response as a transient increase in fluorescence intensity followed by their disappearance. In contrast, fluorescent dynamin appeared as clusters increasing slowly in number upon stimulation. The clusters of fluorescent dynamin moved around beneath the plasma membrane for a significant distance. Simultaneous observations of green fluorescent dynamin and red fluorescent synaptobrevin indicated that more than 70% of the exocytotic responses of synaptobrevin had no immediate dynamin counterpart at the same site. From these findings it was concluded that dynamin-mediated recycling is not directly coupled to exocytosis but rather completed by a scanning movement of dynamin for the sites of invaginating membrane destined to endocytosis.

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