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Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Mar;30(3):319-23.

Identification of the human cytochromes P450 responsible for atomoxetine metabolism.

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  • 1Department of Drug Disposition, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA. ring_barbara_j@lilly.com

Abstract

Studies were performed to determine the human enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of atomoxetine to its major metabolite, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, and to a minor metabolite, N-desmethylatomoxetine. Utilizing human liver microsomes containing a full complement of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, average K(m) and CL(int) values of 2.3 microM and 103 microl/min/mg, respectively, were obtained for 4-hydroxyatomoxetine formation. Microsomal samples deficient in CYP2D6 exhibited average apparent K(m) and CL(int) values of 149 microM and 0.2 microl/min/mg, respectively. In a human liver bank characterized for P450 content, formation of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine correlated only to CYP2D6 activity. Of nine expressed P450s examined, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine was formed at a rate 475-fold greater by CYP2D6 compared with the other P450s. These results demonstrate that CYP2D6 is the enzyme primarily responsible for the formation of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine. Multiple P450s were found to be capable of forming 4-hydroxyatomoxetine when CYP2D6 was not expressed. However, the efficiency at which these enzymes perform this biotransformation is reduced compared with CYP2D6. The formation of the minor metabolite N-desmethylatomoxetine exhibited average K(m) and CL(int) values of 83 microM and 0.8 microl/min/mg, respectively. Utilizing studies similar to those outlined above, CYP2C19 was identified as the primary enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of atomoxetine to N-desmethylatomoxetine. In summary, CYP2D6 was found to be the primary P450 responsible for the formation of the major oxidative metabolite of atomoxetine, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine. Furthermore, these studies indicate that in patients with compromised CYP2D6 activity, multiple low-affinity enzymes will participate in the formation of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine. Therefore, coadministration of P450 inhibitors to poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates would not be predicted to decrease the clearance of atomoxetine in these individuals.

PMID:
11854152
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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