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J Bacteriol. 2002 Mar;184(5):1340-8.

Two novel type III-secreted proteins of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria are encoded within the hrp pathogenicity island.

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  • 1Institut für Genetik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany.


The Hrp type III protein secretion system (TTSS) is essential for pathogenicity of gram-negative plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism and reverse transcription-PCR analyses identified new genes, regulated by key hrp regulator HrpG, in the regions flanking the hrp gene cluster. Sequence analysis revealed genes encoding HpaG, a predicted leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, the lysozyme-like HpaH protein, and XopA and XopD, which are similar in sequence to Hpa1 from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and PsvA from Pseudomonas syringae, respectively. XopA and XopD (Xanthomonas outer proteins) are secreted by the Xanthomonas Hrp TTSS and thus represent putative effector proteins. Mutations in xopA, but not in xopD, resulted in reduced bacterial growth in planta and delayed plant reactions in susceptible and resistant host plants. Since the xopD promoter contains a putative hrp box, which is characteristic of hrpL-regulated genes in P. syringae and Erwinia spp., the gene was probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Interestingly, the regions flanking the hrp gene cluster also contain insertion sequences and genes for a putative transposase and a tRNA(Arg). These features suggest that the hrp gene cluster of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria is part of a pathogenicity island.

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