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Mol Immunol. 2002 Feb;38(10):713-21.

Calcium and oxidative stress: from cell signaling to cell death.

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1
Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, and Division of Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, Rm 306, 3715 McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191, USA.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can be used as a messengers in normal cell functions. However, at oxidative stress levels they can disrupt normal physiological pathways and cause cell death. Such a switch is largely mediated through Ca(2+) signaling. Oxidative stress causes Ca(2+) influx into the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment and from the endoplasmic reticulum or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) through the cell membrane and the ER/SR channels, respectively. Rising Ca(2+) concentration in the cytoplasm causes Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria and nuclei. In mitochondria Ca(2+) accelerates and disrupts normal metabolism leading to cell death. In nuclei Ca(2+) modulates gene transcription and nucleases that control cell apoptosis. Both in nuclei and cytoplasm Ca(2+) can regulate phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of proteins and can modulate signal transduction pathways as a result. Since oxidative stress is associated with many diseases and the aging process, understanding how oxidants alter Ca(2+) signaling can help to understand process of aging and disease, and may lead to new strategies for their prevention.

PMID:
11841831
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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