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Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45(12):787-800.

Paramyxovirus accessory proteins as interferon antagonists.

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Department of Microbiology, Fukui Medical University, Japan.


A new role of the Paramyxovirus accessory proteins has been uncovered. The P gene of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae encodes accessory proteins including the V and/or C protein by means of pseudotemplated nucleotide addition (RNA editing) or by overlapping open reading frame. The Respirovirus (Sendai virus and human parainfluenza virus (hPIV)3) and Rubulavirus (simian virus (SV)5, SV41, mumps virus and hPIV2) circumvent the interferon (IFN) response by inhibiting IFN signaling. The responsible genes were mapped to the C gene for SeV and the V gene for rubulaviruses. On the other hand, wild type measles viruses isolated from clinical specimens suppress production of IFN, although responsible viral factors remain to be identified. Both human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) counteract the antiviral effect of IFN with inhibiting neither IFN signaling nor IFN production. Bovine RSV NS1 and NS2 proteins cooperatively antagonize the antiviral effect of IFN. Studies on the molecular mechanism by which viruses circumvent the host IFN response will not only illustrate co-evolution of virus strategies of immune evasion but also provide basic information useful for engineering novel antiviral drugs as well as recombinant live vaccine.

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