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Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Dec;52(4):451-64.

[Overuse injury syndromes of the calf and foot] ].

[Article in Croatian]

Author information

  • 1Klinika za ortopediju Medicinskog fakulteta Sveucilista u Zagrebu, KBC Zagreb, Zagreb.


The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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