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J Clin Invest. 2002 Feb;109(3):419-25.

The Fas-associated death domain protein suppresses activation of NF-kappa B by LPS and IL-1 beta.

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Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.


Activation of NF-kappa B by bacterial LPS promotes the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock. LPS activation of NF-kappa B is dependent upon the interaction of two death domain-containing (DD-containing) proteins, MyD88 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase IRAK. Another DD-containing protein, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), also binds MyD88 through respective DD-DD interactions. Although FADD has been classically described as a proapoptotic signaling molecule, several reports have implicated a role for FADD in mediating NF-kappa B activation. In the present report, we investigated whether FADD could mediate LPS activation of NF-kappa B. Overexpression of FADD blocked LPS-induced NF-kappa B activation, whereas absence of FADD enhanced activation of NF-kappa B by LPS. Further, LPS-induced expression of two NF-kappa B-dependent gene products, IL-6 and KC, was enhanced in FADD(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) compared with wild-type. This increase in NF-kappa B activity correlated with enhanced I kappa B degradation. FADD(-/-) MEFs were also resistant to NF-kappa B activation induced by IL-1 beta. Finally, reconstitution of full-length FADD in the FADD(-/-) MEFs completely reversed the enhanced activation of NF-kappa B elicited by either LPS or IL-1 beta. Together, these data indicate that FADD negatively regulates LPS- and IL-1 beta-induced NF-kappa B activation and that this regulation occurs upstream of I kappa B degradation.

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