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Int Immunopharmacol. 2002 Feb;2(2-3):315-24.

Stress-induced immunomodulation and the implications for health.

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Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus 43210, USA.


There are complex bi-directional interactions among the central nervous system (CNS), the endocrine system, and the immune system. Although the mechanisms of this bi-directional communication is not yet fully understood, studies in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) have shown that stress, through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes, can result in the dysregulation of the immune system. In this review, we discuss human studies and animal models, which focuses on psychological stress emphasizing the implications of these effects on wound healing and infectious diseases.

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