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Pflugers Arch. 2002 Jan;443(3):362-9. Epub 2001 Oct 19.

Direct left ventricular wall stretch activates GATA4 binding in perfused rat heart: involvement of autocrine/paracrine pathways.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Biocenter Oulu, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland.


The signaling cascades that activate transcription factors during cardiac hypertrophy are largely unknown. To evaluate the mechanisms for GATA4 and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to elevated wall stretch by inflating a left ventricular balloon. Gel mobility shift assays were used to analyze the transacting factors that interact with the GATA or the AP-1 motifs of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter. Direct wall stretch for 30 min produced a twofold increase ( P<0.001) in left ventricular BNP GATA4- but not GATA5- and GATA6-binding activity. In addition, increased BNP AP-1-binding activity and the presence of c-fos were demonstrated in wall-stretch-stimulated ventricles compared with unloaded ventricles. The mixed endothelin-1 ETA/ETB receptor antagonist bosentan and the angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist CV-11974 completely inhibited the wall-stretch-induced increase in left ventricular BNP GATA4 and AP-1 activity. Infusions of ET-1 and Ang II in the absence of wall stretch also stimulated BNP GATA4-binding activity ( P<0.01). These results show that ET-1 and Ang II are required for the stimulation of GATA4 and AP-1 DNA-binding activity in response to direct left ventricular wall stretch.

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