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J Immunol. 2002 Feb 1;168(3):1372-9.

15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-PGJ2 induces IL-8 production in human T cells by a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

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  • 1Cancer Center, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.


Mast cells, platelets, and some macrophages are abundant sources of PGD(2) and its active metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15-d-PGJ(2)). The lipid mediator 15-d-PGJ(2) regulates numerous processes, including adipogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation. The 15-d-PGJ(2) has been shown to both inhibit as well as induce the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and cyclooxygenase, mostly occurring via a nuclear receptor called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). Data concerning the effects of 15-d-PGJ(2) on human T cells and immune regulation are sparse. IL-8, a cytokine with both chemotactic and angiogenic effects, is produced by T lymphocytes following activation. Whether 15-d-PGJ(2) can regulate the production of IL-8 in T cells in unknown. Interestingly, 15-d-PGJ(2) treatment of unstimulated T cells induces cell death. In contrast, in activated human T lymphocytes, 15-d-PGJ(2) does not kill them, but induces the synthesis of IL-8. In this study, we report that 15-d-PGJ(2) induced a significant increase in both IL-8 mRNA and protein from activated human T lymphocytes. The induction of IL-8 by 15-d-PGJ(2) did not occur through the nuclear receptor PPAR-gamma, as synthetic PPAR-gamma agonists did not mimic the IL-8-inducing effects of 15-d-PGJ(2). The mechanism of IL-8 induction was through a mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB pathway, as inhibitors of both systems abrogated IL-8 protein induction. Therefore, 15-d-PGJ(2) can act as a potent proinflammatory mediator in activated T cells by inducing the production of IL-8. These findings show the complexity with which 15-d-PGJ(2) regulates T cells by possessing both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the activation state of the cell. The implications of this research also include that caution is warranted in assigning a solely anti-inflammatory role for 15-d-PGJ(2).

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