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Chem Res Toxicol. 2002 Jan;15(1):48-62.

Disposition of 1-[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]-N-[3-fluoro-2'- (methylsulfonyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)- 1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (DPC 423) by novel metabolic pathways. Characterization of unusual metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR.

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Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Section, DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company, Stine-Haskell Research Center, Newark, DE 19714, USA.


The in vitro and in vivo disposition of DPC 423 was investigated in mice, rats, dogs and humans and the metabolites characterized by LC/MS, LC/NMR and high field-NMR. The rodents produced several metabolites that included an aldehyde (M1), a carboxylic acid (M2), a benzyl alcohol (M3), glutamate conjugates (M4 and M5), an acyl glucuronide (M6) and its isomers; a carbamyl glucuronide (M7); a phenol (M8) and its glucuronide conjugate (M9), two glutathione adducts (M10 and M11), a sulfamate conjugate (M12), isomers of an oxime metabolite (M13), and an amide (M14). Humans and dogs produced less complex metabolite profiles than rats. While unchanged DPC 423 was the major component in plasma and urine samples, differences in the metabolic disposition of this compound among species were noted. M1 is believed to be rapidly oxidized to the carboxylic acid (M2), which forms the potentially reactive acyl glucuronide (M6). The formation of novel glutamate conjugates (M4 and M5) and their role in depleting endogenous glutathione have been described previously. The carbamyl glucuronide M7, found as the major metabolite in rats and in other species, was considered nonreactive and was easily hydrolyzed to the parent compound in the presence of beta-glucuronidase. The identification of GSH adducts M10 and M11 led us to postulate the existence of at least two reactive intermediates responsible for their formation, an epoxide and possibly a nitrile oxide, respectively. Although the formation of GSH adducts such as M10 from epoxides has been described before, there are no reports to date describing the existence of a GSH adduct (M11) of an oxime. The formation of a sulfamate conjugate (M12) formed by direct coupling of sulfate to the nitrogen of benzylamine is described. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of the oxime (M13) that involves sequential oxidation of the benzylamine to the corresponding hydroxylamine and nitroso intermediate. The rearrangement of the nitroso intermediate is believed to produce the oxime (M13). In vitro studies suggested that both the oxime (M13) and the aldehyde (M1) were precursors to the carboxylic acid (M2). This is the first demonstration of carboxylic acid formation via an oxime intermediate produced from an amine. The stability of DPC423 in plasma obtained from several species was studied. Significant species differences in the plasma stability of DPC 423 were observed. The formation of the aldehyde metabolite (M1) was found to be catalyzed by a semicarbazide-sensitive monoamine oxidase (SSAO) found in plasma of rabbits, dogs, and rhesus monkeys. Rat, chimpanzee, and human plasma did not form M1.

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