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Genes Dev. 2002 Jan 15;16(2):235-44.

Isolating human transcription factor targets by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation and CpG island microarray analysis.

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McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA.


Previously, identification of promoters regulated by mammalian transcription factors has relied upon overexpression studies. Here we present the identification of a large set of promoters that are bound by E2F in physiological conditions. Probing a human CpG microarray with chromatin immunoprecipitated using an antibody to E2F4, we have identified 68 unique target loci; 15% are bidirectional promoters and 25% recruit E2F via a mechanism distinct from the defined consensus site. Interestingly, although E2F has been shown previously to regulate genes involved in cell cycle progression, many of the new E2F target genes encode proteins involved in DNA repair or recombination. We suggest that human CpG microarrays, in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation, will allow rapid identification of target promoters for many mammalian transcription factors.

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