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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Dec;947:26-33; discussion 33-4.

Evidence for the physiological and pathological roles of adrenomedullin from genetic engineering in mice.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.


Adrenomedullin (AM) has been implicated as having hypotensive as well as protective effects on organs and vessels against different kinds of injuries. To elucidate the in vivo pathophysiological roles of adrenomedullin, we established transgenic mice (AMTg) overexpressing adrenomedullin driven by preproendothelin-1 promoter and adrenomedullin knockout mice (AMKO). Blood pressure in AMTg was significantly lower than that in wild-type mice, and AMTg was significantly resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock and vascular injuries. On the other hand, heterozygotes of AMKO, AM(+/-), were fully viable and hypertensive as compared with wild littermates. Mice homozygous for adrenomedullin null mutation (AM-/-) were embryonic lethal, and no embryos could survive beyond the midterm of gestation. Collectively, our findings indicate the indispensable role of adrenomedullin in circulatory homeostasis and the organ protection as well as the fetal morphogenesis and the maintenance of pregnancy.

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