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Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2001 Dec;14(4):681-93.

Management of dislocated intraocular implants.

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Southern California Desert and Inland Retina Consultants, Palm Springs, California, USA.


Implant dislocation may occur in the absence of appropriate capsular or zonular support (PCIOL) (11,35,53) or following traumatic injury to anterior ocular tissues (ACIOL). (11,19,20) Other factors (e.g., advanced patient age, high myopia, previous vitrectomy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and certain connective tissue disorders) also may predispose implant dislocation. (9,52) Although reported for all types of IOLs, implant dislocation is becoming more manageable because of the advancement of surgical techniques. A dislocated ACIOL or PCIOL may be explanted, exchanged, or repositioned. (11,48,71) Repositioning the dislocated PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus with modern vitreoretinal techniques provides an optimal environment for visual recovery. (11,71) Implant repositioning techniques generally may be categorized into the external or the internal approaches. (8,11) The former involves external suturing methods for a primary or secondary implant in the absence of adequate capsular or zonular support (15,16,31,42,56,60,61,64,66,73,76) and the latter is achieved through modern pars plana techniques. 8,11,62,69) Recently, several implant repositioning methods gaining increasing acceptance include the scleral loop fixation, (45) the snare approach, (43) the use of the 25-gauge implant forceps, (13) temporary haptic externalization, (8,11,36,71) and the use of perfluorocarbon liquids. (1,28,40,41,44) The temporary haptic externalization method combines the best features of the external and the internal approaches, avoids complex intraocular maneuvers, and allows precise scleral fixation of the dislocated IOL on a consistent basis. (8,11,71) Endoscopy provides the surgeon with optimal viewing of the anterior retropupillary anatomy that is often difficult to appreciate (e.g., capsular-zonular complex, ciliary sulcus, anterior retina, and vitreous base). (6,11) As a result, precise haptic placement is possible during the repositioning process. (6,11) However, a three-dimensional birds-eye view is lacking, and there may be a steep learning curve with endoscopy. (11) Certain characteristics of a silicone plate implant may enhance implant dislocation. (11,33,34,46,49,58) Capsular contraction following an Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomv may result in a posterior dislocation of the silicone plate implant. (11,33,34,46,49,50,58) Special techniques are available for the retrieval of the slippery dislocated silicone plate implant from the retinal surface without causing injury. (33,58) Repositioning the plate implant anterior to capsular remnants or in the ciliary sulcus may lead to recurrent dislocation, and its removal is frequently the best option. (11) Placing a second implant in the presence of a disLocated implant is ill advised because subsequent surgical management becomes more complex. (11) Surgical options include removing the dislocated implant through a Limbal or pars plana incision with special techniques, (74,75) repositioning the dislocated implant after removing the second implant," and explanting both implants. (11) Considering the increased morbidities and complications associated with the management of double implants, the surgeon should avoid the placement of a second implant in the setting of a dislocated implant. (11)

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