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Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002 Jan;121(1):9-17.

Effectiveness of early treatment of Class II malocclusion.

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Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0444, USA.


The purpose of this study was to examine and report the effectiveness of early treatment with the headgear/biteplate and the bionator in patients with Class II malocclusion regardless of the mechanism of correction and to compare early-treatment results with changes over a similar time period in an observation group. The role of factors such as compliance was examined to determine their contribution to effective treatment. The experimental design was a prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trial. At the end of the early-treatment period, all 3 groups differed significantly (overall, P = .001) in percentage of treatment goal achieved, with median values of 83% for the bionator group, 100% for the headgear group, and 14% for the observation group. In both treated and observation subjects, the percentages of goal achieved varied by initial molar class severity (treated, P =.0205; observation, P = .0040) and race (treated, P = .0314; observation, P = .0416). Significant correlations in the treated subjects were identified between percentage of goal achieved and bone age (13 bones) (r = 0.16; P = .037), bone age (20 bones) (r = 0.16; P = .043), compliance (r = 0.26; P = .0005), and initial overjet (r = -0.26; P = .0095). Significant correlations were not detected in the observation group. Sex, treatment group, age, mandibular plane angle, pretreatment, and retention did not significantly affect percentage of goal achieved among the treated and the observation subjects. Correlation between normalized compliance scores and percentage of goal achieved was high for both bionator (r = 0.50) and headgear subjects (r = 0.49) at the end of treatment. Multivariate analysis suggested that headgear may be superior to bionator/biteplane in achieving a Class II correction during early treatment.

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