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FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002 Jan 2;206(1):1-8.

Protein kinases and protein phosphatases in prokaryotes: a genomic perspective.

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Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.


For many years, the regulation of protein structure and function by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was considered a relatively recent invention that arose independently in each phylogenetic domain. Over time, however, incidents of apparent domain trespass involving the presence of 'eukaryotic' protein kinases or protein phosphatases in prokaryotic organisms were reported with increasing frequency. Today, genomics has provided the means to examine the phylogenetic distribution of 'eukaryotic' protein kinases and protein phosphatases in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The results of these genome searches challenge previous conceptions concerning the origins and evolution of this versatile regulatory mechanism.

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