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J Pharm Sci. 2002 Jan;91(1):18-31.

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies in drug product development.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, 874 Union Avenue, Room 5p, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA.


In the quest of ways for rationalizing and accelerating drug product development, integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) concepts provide a highly promising tool. PK/PD modeling concepts can be applied in all stages of preclinical and clinical drug development, and their benefits are multifold. At the preclinical stage, potential applications might comprise the evaluation of in vivo potency and intrinsic activity, the identification of bio-/surrogate markers, as well as dosage form and regimen selection and optimization. At the clinical stage, analytical PK/PD applications include characterization of the dose-concentration-effect/toxicity relationship, evaluation of food, age and gender effects, drug/drug and drug/disease interactions, tolerance development, and inter- and intraindividual variability in response. Predictive PK/PD applications can also involve extrapolation from preclinical data, simulation of drug responses, as well as clinical trial forecasting. Rigorous implementation of the PK/PD concepts in drug product development provides a rationale, scientifically based framework for efficient decision making regarding the selection of potential drug candidates, for maximum information gain from the performed experiments and studies, and for conducting fewer, more focused clinical trials with improved efficiency and cost effectiveness. Thus, PK/PD concepts are believed to play a pivotal role in streamlining the drug development process of the future.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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