Send to

Choose Destination
Cell. 2001 Dec 28;107(7):855-67.

Posttranslational mechanisms regulate the mammalian circadian clock.

Author information

Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.


We have examined posttranslational regulation of clock proteins in mouse liver in vivo. The mouse PERIOD proteins (mPER1 and mPER2), CLOCK, and BMAL1 undergo robust circadian changes in phosphorylation. These proteins, the cryptochromes (mCRY1 and mCRY2), and casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) form multimeric complexes that are bound to DNA during negative transcriptional feedback. CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimers remain bound to DNA over the circadian cycle. The temporal increase in mPER abundance controls the negative feedback interactions. Analysis of clock proteins in mCRY-deficient mice shows that the mCRYs are necessary for stabilizing phosphorylated mPER2 and for the nuclear accumulation of mPER1, mPER2, and CKIepsilon. We also provide in vivo evidence that casein kinase I delta is a second clock relevant kinase.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center