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Hum Gene Ther. 2002 Jan 1;13(1):113-24.

Toxicity of a first-generation adenoviral vector in rhesus macaques.

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National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.


We constructed a first-generation adenovirus vector (AVC3FIX5) that we used to assess the rhesus macaque as a nonhuman primate model for preclinical testing of hemophilia B gene therapy vectors. Although we succeeded in our primary objective of demonstrating expression of human factor IX we encountered numerous toxic side effects that proved to be dose limiting. Following intravenous administration of AVC3FIX5 at doses of 3.4 x 10(11) vector particles/kg to 3.8 x 10(12) vector particles/kg, the animals in our study developed antibodies against human factor IX, and dose-dependent elevations of enzymes specific for liver, muscle, and lung injury. In addition, these animals showed dose-dependent prolongation of clotting times as well as acute, dose-dependent decreases in platelet counts and concomitant elevation of fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor. These abnormalities may be caused by the direct toxic effects of the adenovirus vector itself, or may result indirectly from the accompanying acute inflammatory response marked by elevations in IL-6, a key regulator of the acute inflammatory response. The rhesus macaque may be a useful animal model in which to evaluate mechanisms of adenovirus toxicities that have been encountered during clinical gene therapy trials.

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