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Biopolymers. 2001;60(3):220-8.

Phage-display evolution of tyrosine kinases with altered nucleotide specificity.

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Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.


The problem of identifying downstream targets of kinase phosphorylation remains a challenge despite technological advances in genomics and proteomics. A recent approach involves the generation of kinase mutants that can uniquely use "orthogonal" ATP analogs to phosphorylate substrates in vivo. Using structure-based design, mutants of several protein kinase superfamily members have been found; robust and general methods are needed, however, for altering the nucleotide specificity of the remaining kinases in the genome. Here we demonstrate the application of a new phage display technique for direct functional selection to the identification of a tyrosine kinase mutant with the ability to use N6-benzyl-ATP. Our method produces, in five rounds of selection, a mutant identical to the best orthogonal Src kinase found to date. In addition, we isolate from a larger library of kinase mutants a promiscuous clone capable of using many different ATP analogs. This approach to engineering orthogonal kinases, combined with others, will facilitate the mapping of phosphorylation targets of any kinase in the genome.

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