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J Otolaryngol. 2001 Feb;30(1):34-40.

Pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction: retrospective review of indications and results in 244 consecutive cases at the Toronto General Hospital.

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  • 1The Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Ontario.


The pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap (PMMPF) has been considered to be the "workhorse" of pedicled flaps for head and neck reconstruction, and several series of PMMPF procedures have been reported in the literature. Between 1983 and 1997, 244 reconstruction procedures using the PMMPF were carried out on 229 patients by the Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department at the Toronto General Hospital. Pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap reconstructions were completed after ablation of cancer in the following sites: oral cavity, 113; oropharynx/hypopharynx, 50; larynx, 59; and other, 21. The locations of reconstruction were oral cavity, 121; pharynx, 74; and neck or face, 50. Of the 244 cases, 202 were carried out as primary reconstructive procedures, whereas 42 flaps were "salvage" procedures (reconstruction after fistula, flap failure, osteoradionecrosis, and internal jugular vein rupture). Eighty-five cases (35%) were affected by complications such as dehiscence, infection, hematoma, seroma, partial flap failure, total flap failure, fistula, and donor site complications. The duration of admission for cases with complications was longer, and higher complication rates were associated with salvage procedures, number of comorbidities, number of pack-years of cigarettes smoked, and oral cavity reconstructions. This series of consecutive PMMPF procedures is the largest reported to date.

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