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Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Nov;3(4):291-7.

Gender and racial/ethnic differences in tobacco-dependence treatment: a commentary and research recommendations.

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Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, 53711-2027, USA.


The preparation of the Public Health Service Report, Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, brought to light a substantial gap in the smoking cessation literature; there is little or no research evidence regarding the success of formal tobacco-dependence treatment specific to gender or racial/ethnic status. Of the 192 articles included in the meta-analyses of the evidence-based PHS Report, none included results based on racial/ethnic group and only four reported results by gender. This commentary identifies tobacco use as a problem that crosses gender and racial/ethnic boundaries, reviews reasons that the different genders or racial/ethnic groups might require different tobacco-dependence treatments, provides suggestive evidence that both gender and racial/ethnic status influence tobacco-dependence treatment efficacy, and recommends changes and directions for future clinical research that will address gender and racial/ethnicity effects.

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