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Prog Urol. 2001 Sep;11(4):591-601.

[Hemorrhagic cystitis: etiology and treatment].

[Article in French]

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Service d'Urologie, Hôpital Tenon, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris.


Haemorrhagic cystitis consists of acute or insidious diffuse bleeding from the bladder mucosa. Although the aetiology of haemorrhagic cystitis is varied, the two predominant causes are chemical and irradiation. The chemical compounds most frequently responsible for haemorrhagic cystitis are oxaphosphorines (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide). Haemorrhagic cystitis may also be due to toxic or infectious causes (bacterial, fungal, parasitic or viral). Finally, haemorrhagic cystitis can occur in the context of a systemic disease or may be isolated and idiopathic. Prevention of haemorrhagic cystitis, based on general measures and specific measures, is essential, but is not always effective. In the case of proven haemorrhagic cystitis, various treatment options are available, including and can associate clot extraction, continuous bladder irrigation, bladder instillations of haemostatic factors, formalin, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, arterial embolization or salvage surgery. Although therapeutic management is usually effective, it can sometimes be difficult due to the severity of the bleeding and its repercussions on the patient's general state. Deaths are not exceptional, emphasizing the seriousness of haemorrhagic cystitis. Based on a review of the literature, the authors review the aetiology and treatment of haemorrhagic cystitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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