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Neuroimmunomodulation. 2001;9(3):148-56.

Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release is controlled by the central nervous system.

Author information

1
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Lousiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in mammals orchestrates the release of many proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Intravenous administration of 0.2 mg/kg of LPS into unanesthetized rats with indwelling jugular catheters provoked a rapid, 50-fold increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha within 30 min, which declined by 60% by 120 min. To test our hypothesis that such a rapid increase of TNF-alpha would be either neurally or hormonally controlled, the effect on TNF-alpha release of anesthesia (ketamine/acepromazine/xylazine) and catecholaminergic agonists and antagonists, either alone or in the presence of LPS, was determined.

METHODS:

Rats bearing indwelling external jugular catheters were injected with the test drug or saline after removal of 0.6 ml of blood (-10 min). At time zero, LPS or saline was administered. Thereafter, blood samples were drawn at 15, 30, 120, 240 and 360 min. TNF-alpha was measured by immunoassay.

RESULTS:

Among all the drugs tested, only propranolol increased plasma TNF-alpha. Anesthesia significantly blunted the LPS-induced TNF-alpha peak by 50%. Isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, also blocked LPS-induced TNF-alpha release by 70% at 30 min and 90% at 120 min. On the contrary, propranolol, a beta-receptor blocker, induced a highly significant 3-fold increase in plasma TNF-alpha concentrations at 30 min and augmented the response to LPS 2-fold after endotoxin injection. Phentolamine, an alpha-receptor blocker, decreased the LPS-induced TNF-alpha release by 57% at 30 min. Similarly, alpha-bromoergocryptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, decreased the LPS-induced TNF-alpha peak by 70% at 30 min and 50% at 120 min.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that TNF-alpha is at least in part neurally controlled since the anesthetic blocked its response to LPS. The fact that isoproterenol decreased the LPS-induced TNF-alpha release, whereas propranolol augmented basal and LPS-induced release suggests that the sympathetic nervous system inhibits basal and LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha release via beta-adrenergic receptors. Since phentolamine blocked LPS-induced release, this release may be induced, in part at least, by LPS-stimulated adrenergic drive acting on alpha-adrenergic receptors. The suppressive action of bromoergocryptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on LPS-induced TNF-alpha release may be mediated in part by suppression of prolactin release, which triggers TNF-alpha release.

PMID:
11752888
DOI:
10.1159/000049019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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