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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18;98(26):14961-6.

Galpha i3 binding to calnuc on Golgi membranes in living cells monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins.

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Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.


Galphai3 is found both on the plasma membrane and on Golgi membranes. Calnuc, an EF hand protein, binds both Galphai3 and Ca(2+) and is found both in the Golgi lumen and in the cytoplasm. To investigate whether Galphai3 binds calnuc in living cells and where this interaction takes place we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis between Galphai3 and calnuc in COS-7 cells expressing Galphai3-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and calnuc-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). The tagged proteins have the same localization as the endogenous, nontagged proteins. When Galphai3-YFP and calnuc-CFP are coexpressed, a FRET signal is detected in the Golgi region, but no FRET signal is detected on the plasma membrane. FRET is also seen within the Golgi region when Galphai3 is coexpressed with cytosolic calnuc(DeltaN2-25)-CFP lacking its signal sequence. No FRET signal is detected when Galphai3(DeltaC12)-YFP lacking the calnuc-binding region is coexpressed with calnuc-CFP or when Galphai3-YFP and calnuc(DeltaEF-1,2)-CFP, which is unable to bind Galphai3, are coexpressed. Galphai3(G2AC3A)-YFP lacking its lipid anchors is localized in the cytoplasm, and no FRET signal is detected when it is coexpressed with wild-type calnuc-CFP. These results indicate that cytosolic calnuc binds to Galphai3 on Golgi membranes in living cells and that Galphai3 must be anchored to the cytosolic surface of Golgi membranes via lipid anchors for the interaction to occur. Calnuc has the properties of a Ca(2+) sensor protein capable of binding to and potentially regulating interactions of Galphai3 on Golgi membranes.

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