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Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):312-7.

Transcription Regulatory Regions Database (TRRD): its status in 2002.

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  • 1Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.


Transcription Regulatory Regions Database (TRRD) is an informational resource containing an integrated description of the gene transcription regulation. An entry of the database corresponds to a gene and contains the data on localization and functions of the transcription regulatory regions as well as gene expression patterns. TRRD contains only experimental data that are inputted into the database through annotating scientific publication. TRRD release 6.0 comprises the information on 1167 genes, 5537 transcription factor binding sites, 1714 regulatory regions, 14 locus control regions and 5335 expression patterns obtained through annotating 3898 scientific papers. This information is arranged in seven databases: TRRDGENES (general gene description), TRRDLCR (locus control regions); TRRDUNITS (regulatory regions: promoters, enhancers, silencers, etc.), TRRDSITES (transcription factor binding sites), TRRDFACTORS (transcription factors), TRRDEXP (expression patterns) and TRRDBIB (experimental publications). Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) is used as a basic tool for navigating and searching TRRD and integrating it with external informational and software resources. The visualization tool, TRRD Viewer, provides the information representation in a form of maps of gene regulatory regions. The option allowing nucleotide sequences to be searched for according to their homology using BLAST is also included. TRRD is available at

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