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J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 1;277(9):7287-92. Epub 2001 Dec 21.

Synthesis and characterization of high affinity inhibitors of the H+/peptide transporter PEPT2.

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Molecular Nutrition Unit, Institute of Nutritional Science, Technical University of Munich, Hochfeldweg 2, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.


In this study, we describe the rational synthesis and functional analysis of novel high affinity inhibitors for the mammalian peptide transporter PEPT2. Moreover, we demonstrate which structural properties convert a transported compound into a non-translocated inhibitor. Starting from Lys[Z(NO(2))]-Pro (where Z is benzyloxycarbonyl), which we recently identified as the first competitive high affinity inhibitor of the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1, a series of different lysine-containing dipeptide derivatives was synthesized and studied for interaction with PEPT2 based on transport competition assays in Pichia pastoris yeast cells expressing PEPT2 heterologously and in renal SKPT cells expressing PEPT2. In addition, the two-electrode voltage clamp technique in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing PEPT2 was used to determine whether the compounds are transported electrogenically or block the uptake of dipeptides. Synthesis and functional analysis of Lys-Lys derivatives containing benzyloxycarbonyl or 4-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl side chain protections provided a set of inhibitors that reversibly inhibited the uptake of dipeptides by PEPT2 with K(i) values as low as 10 +/- 1 nm. This is the highest affinity of a ligand of PEPT2 ever reported. Moreover, based on the structure-function relationship, we conclude that the spatial location of the side chain amino protecting group in a dipeptide containing a diaminocarbonic acid and its intramolecular distance from the Calpha atom are key factors for the transformation of a substrate into an inhibitor of PEPT2.

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