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Br J Cancer. 2001 Dec 14;85(12):1922-7.

RCAS1 as a tumour progression marker: an independent negative prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer.

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Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.


Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) induces apoptosis in immune cells bearing the RCAS1 receptor. We sought to determine RCAS1 involvement in the origin and progression of gallbladder cancer, and also implications of RCAS1 for patient survival. RCAS1 expression was examined immunohistochemically in 110 surgically resected gallbladder specimens. The gallbladders represented 20 cases of cholecystitis with no associated pancreaticobiliary maljunction; 23 cases of cholecystitis with pancreaticobiliary maljunction; 14 cases of adenomyomatosis; 7 adenomas; and 46 cancers. High expression of RCAS1 (immunoreactivity in over 25% of cells) was observed in 32 of the 46 cancers (70%), but not in other diseases, including pre-cancerous conditions. RCAS1 immunoreactivity was associated with depth of tumour invasion (P = 0.0180), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0033), lymphatic involvement (P = 0.0104), venous involvement (P = 0.0224), perineural involvement (P = 0.0351) and stage by the tumour, nodes and metastases (TNM) classification (P = 0.0026). Thus, RCAS1 expression may be a relatively late event in gallbladder carcinogenesis, possibly promoting tumour progression. Cox regression multivariate analysis demonstrated RCAS1 positivity to be an independent negative predictor for survival (P = 0.0337; risk ratio, 12.690; 95% confidence interval, 1.216-132.423). High expression of RCAS1 significantly correlated with tumour progression and predicted poor outcome in gallbladder cancer.

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