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Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2001 Jul;22(5):199-212.

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the anticholinergics tiotropium and ipratropium in the rat and dog.

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Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma KG, 88397 Biberach, Germany.


Ipratropium, a current treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tiotropium, a longer acting anticholinergic bronchodilator currently being developed for COPD are structurally related to atropine. In this study, the intravenous (i.v.), oral (p.o.) and intratracheal ( single dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tiotropium and ipratropium were determined in rat and dog. In rats, concentration-time profiles of tiotropium and ipratropium after single i.v. bolus administration of 7-8 mg kg(-1) are similar. Both drugs are highly cleared (Cl between 87 and 150 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and extensively distributed into tissues (volume of distribution V(ss) between 3 and 15 l kg(-1)). In dogs, this holds also true for both drugs (Cl between 34 and 42 ml min(-1) kg(-1), V(ss) between 2 and 10 l kg(-1)), although different dose regimen were applied (i.v. bolus of 0.08 mg kg(-1) vs. infusion of 0.1 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for 3 h). Tiotropium plasma concentrations increased linearly in rats over a wide dose range following single i.v. administration. Both ipratropium and tiotropium showed a comparable terminal elimination half-life in rat urine (21-24 h) after single i.v. administration, which was much longer than the corresponding half-life in plasma (6-8 h). Whole body autoradiography in rats revealed a broad and rapid tissue distribution of [(14)C]tiotropium radioactivity after single i.v. administration. A comparable distribution pattern has also been reported earlier for ipratropium.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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