Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Dec;38(7):2071-8.

Noninvasive electrocardiogram imaging of substrate and intramural ventricular tachycardia in infarcted hearts.

Author information

Cardiac Bioelectricity Research and Training Center (CBRTC) and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7207, USA.



The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate a novel noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging modality during intramural reentrant ventricular tachycardia (VT).


Myocardial infarction and subsequent remodeling produce abnormal electrophysiologic substrates capable of initiating and maintaining reentrant arrhythmias. Existing noninvasive electrocardiographic methods cannot characterize abnormal electrophysiologic substrates in the heart or the details of associated arrhythmias. A noninvasive method with such capabilities is needed to identify patients at risk of arrhythmias and to guide and evaluate therapy.


A dog heart with a four-day-old infarction was suspended in a human shaped torso-tank. Measured body surface potentials were used to noninvasively compute epicardial potentials, electrograms and isochrones. Accuracy of reconstruction was evaluated by direct comparison to measured data. Reconstructions were performed during right atrial pacing and nine cycles of VT.


Noninvasively reconstructed potential maps, electrograms and isochrones identified: 1) the location of electrophysiologically abnormal infarct substrate; 2) the epicardial activation sequences during the VTs; 3) the locations of epicardial breakthrough sites; and 4) electrophysiologic evidence for activation of the Purkinje system and septum during the reentrant beats.


Electrocardiographic imaging can noninvasively reconstruct electrophysiologic information on the epicardium during VT with intramural reentry, provide information about the location of the intramural components of reentry and image abnormal electrophysiologic substrates associated with infarction.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center