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Genes Cells. 2001 Nov;6(11):923-30.

Roles of nodal-lefty regulatory loops in embryonic patterning of vertebrates.

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Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Nodal is a signalling molecule that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins, and Lefty proteins are antagonists of Nodal signalling. The nodal and lefty genes form positive and negative regulatory loops that resemble the reaction-diffusion system. As a pair, these genes control various events of vertebrate embryonic patterning, including left-right specification and mesoderm formation. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that have addressed the roles of nodal and lefty in mouse development.

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