Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;158(12):1956-63.

The fate of integrated treatment: whatever happened to the biopsychosocial psychiatrist?

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.



The authors suggest that pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, the major treatment modalities in psychiatry, have become fragmented from one another, creating an artificial separation of the psychosocial and biological domains in psychiatry.


After a brief discussion of the economic factors influencing this trend, the authors provide a selective overview of recent research. In the absence of systematic empirical data regarding which patients and which conditions might benefit from integrated treatment by one psychiatrist, the authors propose specific clinical situations that call for such integration and also discuss concerns about cost-effectiveness.


Recent research suggests that combining psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy may have advantages over either treatment alone in certain clinical situations involving specific disorders. While few of the studies on combined treatment have tested whether a one-person or two-person model of treatment provision is more effective, there are a number of advantages to the one-person treatment model in which a psychiatrist conducts the psychotherapy and prescribes medication for the same patient.


The authors suggest that further research is needed to clarify the optimal situations for the one-person model of integrated treatment and also propose systematic teaching of integrated treatment in all residency training programs.

Comment in

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center